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准时化生产--彻底消除浪费的哲学(双语版)
Just-in-Time --philosophy of complete elimination of waste(Bilingual)

翻译自丰田网站
文章类别:来自丰田 |电子期刊号: 2009年第5期

准时化生产

“准时化生产”是指在正好的时间、以正好的数量、生产和发送正确物品的一套方法。为了有效地生产大量的产品,比如包括30000多零件的汽车,工厂非常有必要建立一个详细的生产计划,包括零部件采购。
按照这个生产计划,供应“正好的时间、以正好的数量、生产和发送正确物品”,可以消除浪费,不一致之处和不合理的要求,从而提高生产力。

Just-in-Time

"Just-in-Time" means making only "what is needed, when it is needed, and in the amount needed." To efficiently produce a large number of products such as automobiles, which are comprised of some 30,000 parts, it is necessary to create a detailed production plan that includes parts procurement, for example.

Supplying "what is needed, when it is needed, and in the amount needed" according to this production plan can eliminate waste, inconsistencies, and unreasonable requirements, resulting in improved productivity.

看板系统

在丰田生产方式中,一种独特的生产控制方法称为“看板系统”发挥了重要作用。看板系统也曾被称为“超市法” ,因为其背后的思想是出自超级市场。超市和商店种使用的商品标签内录入了产品相关信息,如:产品名称,产品代码,以及存储位置。由于丰田在生产系统中使用看板信号代替卡,后来被称为“看板系统”。在丰田,当从后一个工序向前一工序取件时,会用看板去传达哪些零件已经被领用了。

Kanban System

In the TPS, a unique production control method called the "Kanban System" plays an important role. The Kanban System has also been called the "Supermarket method" because the idea behind it was borrowed from supermarkets. Supermarkets and mass merchandizing stores use product control cards on which product-related information, such as product name, product code, and storage location, is entered. Because Toyota employed Kanban signs in place of the cards for use in production processes, the method came to be called the "Kanban System." At Toyota, when a process goes to the preceding process to retrieve parts, it uses a Kanban to communicate what parts have been used.

为什么要使用超市概念?

超市储存消费者需要的货品,其数量就是客户想要的,而且可以在任何时间进行发售。

丰田前副总裁大野耐一发明了准时化生产想法,使用超市概念将超市和客户的关系用在前工序和后工序中,从而落实了这个想法。当后工序(客户)去前工序(超市)领取所需数额的零件时,有可能改善现有低效率的生产系统,避免前工序生产过剩的部件并提供给后工序。

Why use a supermarket concept?

A supermarket stocks the items needed by customers when they are needed in the quantity needed, and has all of these items available for sale at any time.
Taiichi Ohno (a former Toyota vice president), who promoted the idea of Just-in-Time, applied this concept, equating the supermarket and the customer with the preceding process and the next process, respectively. By having the next process (the customer) go to the preceding process (the supermarket) to retrieve the necessary parts when they are needed and in the amount needed, it was possible to improve upon the existing inefficient production system in which the preceding processes were making excess parts and delivering them to the next process.

看板系统的概念图
Conceptual diagram of the Kanban System

两种看板(生产指示看板及零件领用看板)是用于管理的工具。
Two kinds of Kanban (the production instruction Kanban and the parts retrieval Kanban) are used for managing parts.

 

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